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If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in. To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Search Menu. Skip Nav Destination Article Navigation.

Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents. Article Navigation. Select Format Select format. Permissions Icon Permissions. Article PDF first page preview. You do not currently have access to this article. Download all slides. Sign in Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? At that point, the woman began to be called out by other members on the flight, who were already dealing with a "minute delay because a catering truck had hit a cargo door.

The woman allegedly began "screaming that she's being disrespected, did nothing wrong, she paid good money for her ticket and that she has a child at home waiting for her," all without a mask on amid the ongoing coronavirus pandemic , per the post. Masks are currently required to be worn for the duration of a flight on any major U.

The flight captain and a supervisor then both alerted the woman that she would need to remove herself from the aircraft, which she allegedly refused to do. She and her friend were eventually removed from the aircraft by police, as was another passenger, who began to curse at a flight attendant because of the delay. The captain later talked with the author of the FlyerTalk post and revealed that there were also "a couple more security concerns" about the two women.

Supported by shrinking supplies and firm demand, Asian refiners' profit from producing very low sulphur fuel oil VLSFO rose to a one-year high this week, setting the stage for a trend that could persist throughout the year, traders and analysts said.

Milwaukee had its five-game winning streak snapped despite getting a season-high 47 points from Giannis Antetokounmpo. The Bucks had a chance to win it on the final possession, but Antetokounmpo missed a foot jumper at the buzzer. The Suns have won seven of eight and have a record. Milwaukee has scored at least points in every game over their past six. The Suns took their first lead of the second half at when Paul made a 3-pointer with 11 minutes left in the fourth quarter. Frank Kaminsky made another long ball less than a minute later to push the Suns ahead Booker made a step back 3-pointer with left to put the Suns up but the Bucks pulled to with a minute left on Khris Middleton's corner 3.

Antetokounmpo flushed a dunk on the next possession to tie it at with 50 seconds left. Booker made a free throw with 32 seconds left that proved to be the difference. The Bucks had a point halftime advantage, but the Suns quickly cut it to after back-to-back 3-pointers from Mikal Bridges and Chris Paul. The game stayed tight from that point and Khris Middleton's foot jumper gave the Bucks a advantage entering the fourth.

The teams fought to a all tie in the first quarter before the Bucks caught fire from 3-point range and scored 39 points in the second. Bryn Forbes and Antetokounmpo led the Bucks with 17 points each. Forbes — who was making just his second start of the season — made 5 of 6 3-pointers.

The Suns have played the anthem at all home games this season, even when fans weren't in attendance. Coach Mike Budenholzer said he's been in touch with Holiday while he's been out. The Suns are expanding ticket capacity to 3, fans starting with Tuesday's game against the Nets. They've allowed up to 1, fans in the arena for the past three games. Jae Crowder had 14 rebounds. Suns: Continue their homestand against the 76ers on Saturday. The hall tickets have been released only for the candidates who are due to appear in the first phase exam to be held on 29 and 25 February.

Health authorities in Australia's Victoria state ramped up contact tracing and prepared for more mass testing of residents in Melbourne after a new COVID cluster linked to a quarantine hotel grew to 10 cases on Thursday. More than 22, test results were conducted in the past 24 hours in Australia's second most populous city Melbourne and authorities urged residents to get tested amid fears of community transmission from a worker at the Holiday Inn in the city. Making sure a mask fits snugly on the face and use of two masks is likely to significantly reduce a person's exposure to the coronavirus, U.

The American lost to world number 65 Kaia Kanepi. Bloomberg -- A rally in equities paused Thursday and stock futures in the U. The year Treasury yield fell back to 1. Cash Treasuries are closed until the London open due to a holiday in Japan. Asian stocks were little changed amid low volumes, with China and South Korea markets closed. Hong Kong equities shrugged off a report that Chinese authorities had detained a Tencent Holdings Ltd. The dollar added to losses in the wake of the inflation report.

Crude dropped after a spell of gains. The CPI data are part of a debate in financial markets over the course of inflation. Despite the muted January figure, some investors continue to expect intensifying price pressures in the months ahead as President Joe Biden pushes for major stimulus and more vaccinations allow virus-related restrictions to be eased, spurring consumer spending.

He also said it will require more than supportive monetary policy to achieve and sustain maximum employment. The daily number of new coronavirus cases in the U. Here are some key events coming up:Lunar New Year public holidays begin in nations across Asia, with China breaking for a week. Euro Stoxx 50 futures were little changed. CurrenciesThe yen was at The offshore yuan was at 6. The Bloomberg Dollar Spot Index dipped 0.

BondsThe yield on year Treasuries fell about three basis points to 1. CommoditiesWest Texas Intermediate crude slid 0. Gold lost 0. For more articles like this, please visit us at bloomberg. More than a decade later, the young Canadian stars are set to make Canadian tennis history when they renew their friendly rivalry.


Schultzs title as chief integration o cer relates not so much to the systems on the vehicle as to the people who put those systems together. Im the conduit to ensure that the people have a connection back to their home organization and to identify additional resources that would help the JPO in day-to-day tasks, as well as help ing to see that those tasks get delivered on time and within budget.

His rst assignment was in modeling and simulation. I was always interested in computers and analysis, and working with models to generate vehicle dynamics data gave me my rst exposure to mili tary requirements, meeting performance benchmarks and the associated verica tion methods. From there, he worked in science and technology programs with many program management oces; he has supported the High Mobility Multi purpose Wheeled Vehicle, the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles, the Stryker and the MRAP in some capacity over the course of his career.

Seeing the design take shape from requirementsand being a part of a program that is seen as a model for acquisitionbrings a sense of pride, and it has been very rewarding to be part of building the next truck to be elded to the warghter, he said. JLTV was unique in that the program management oce was able to evaluate competitive prototypes in TD and in the engineering and manufacturing development EMD phase, he explained.

In the TD phase, the program was really testing require ments compliance, and we learned some things that set thresholds for achievable requirements. In EMD, we saw a new set of contractors perform against that new set of requirements, and saw more technology trades come into play as the contractors tried to meet cost targets. For LRIP, the contract award went to one of our EMD contractors, who improved the design based on testing performed in EMD, improving durability and better positioning the vehicle for manufactur ing and meeting the platform cost goals.

Schultz noted that his work requires a great deal of hands-on engineering and problem-solving over a wide range of areas, something that often surprises those not familiar with his work. I think typically there are engineers who are specialists in a single technology. Work ing in JPO JLTV, there are platformwide solutions needed across many of the sub systems involved, spanning the range from working with paint to more com plex engines, for example.

Working on a range of projectswhether assigned to do so or just volunteering has served Schultz well throughout his career. One of the best pieces of advice I give to others is dont wait for someone to give you permission to do something you want to do. Just start doing it. It is very rare anyone will tell you no. He knows whereof he speaks. Early in my career in modeling and simulation, I often took the initiative to work with PMs to nd out what problems they needed help with, rather than waiting for them to approach my team.

JPO JLTV is cur rently performing laboratory durability testing, and Schultz used his leadership connections to ensure that the requisite agreements, funding and planning were in place for the testing. Additionally, he recently led a contract to develop a cam ouage paint pattern for the JLTV. We didn't really have a true expert on paint, and based on my platform knowledge, I felt I could succeed in that task. His contributions havent gone unno ticed.

Because of his ability to delve into engineering matters as well as his crossorganizational management experience, Schultz was selected to ll in as JPO JLTV engineering director when the previous director retired. If you are committed and contributing, more opportunities will come your way and others will seek you out, he said.

More than 60 Army programs of record depend on the service's use of advanced computing and networking resources, and upgrades implemented in May allow researchers to design and improve systems at an even faster pace. Army photo 10 PAGE 13 I nformation-gathering drones swarm the sky as unmanned Army vehi cles push just ahead of infantry Soldiers into a megacity overowing with people, vehicles and high-rise buildings.

Army cyber warriors ght a silent battle for the citys internet of things while an unmanned war ship shoots down an aircraft, which explodes in the air, creating a massive reball and a barrage of fragments that plummet to the ground. Meanwhile, the rst artillery crew to the battle is trading targeting and friendly forces information with Air Force bombers and Navy gunners. Cedric T. Our campaign plan is the road map to do that. Army Engineer Research and Development Centerto round out its portfolio.

RDECOM also continues to develop technologies that provide assured positioning, navigation and timing and support cyber and elec tronic warfare, critical components for both long-range precision res and the network. For example, plans for FVL will lever age multiple areas of expertise within RDECOM, including engineers who can produce technology that allows plat forms to perform complex navigation and a communication system that will operate in anti-access and aerial denial A2AD environments.

Because of antici pated future threats, FVL platforms also will need active protection systems for maneuver and enhanced weapon systems for lethality. Army Combined Arms Center and the Program Executive Office for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation are working together to develop a synthetic training environment that links augmented reality with live trainingone of several RDECOM efforts that link to the Armys modernization priorities.

Recent modernization eorts focused on adding new capabilities to existing platforms. Multidomain battle will only add to that. We need to take a cue from industry. RDECOM plans to conduct technology demonstrations in that showcase robotics and autonomy, as well as eorts involving precision res and network command, control, com munications and intelligence.

Army Cyber Center of Excellences Cyberspace Battle Lab, which will demonstrate cyberspace electromagnetic eects technologies being developed by the U. Exercises in the Pacic theater that will start this spring and continue through FY19 will allow the new Multi-Domain Battle Task Force MDTF pilot program to evaluate specic technologies, including long-range precision res, precision navigation and timing, intelligence, electronic warfare and cyberspace, additive manufacturing sustainment and logistics support.

While the goal of these demonstrations is often an early assess ment of how to apply the technology for military use, RDECOM works closely with the U. To attract and keep a more diverse workforce, RDECOMs human capital team plans to attend more events like BEYA, and offers other incentivesfunding to pursue research opportunities, leadership development and educational programs, as well as the opportunity to work in state-of-the-art labs around the world. As technologies mature and transition into a program of record, the program manager uses the data from the demonstrations to chart a path for eld ing the equipment and providing capability to the warghter.

Recruiting is an ongoing eort within RDECOM because sci entic breakthroughs create new opportunities to advance the state of the art, which means having scientists and engineers at the forefront of their elds is essential, Wins said. RDECOM also teams with academia and industry, but having the right people within the command is key to bringing new capabilities to the force.

To reach the right mix of people, the human capital team created a centralized process to determine which recruiting events the command should attend, as well as metrics for measuring the return on investment from those events. If it is a recruiting event for students, we match them with the correct RDEC, according to their area of study. RDECOM leaders found that the dierent perspectives inher ent in a more diverse workforce help teams avoid groupthink and becoming stale.

As part of its recruitment eort, RDECOM also oers incentives, such as funding to pursue research opportunities, leadership development, educational and publication opportunities, as well as the opportunity to work in state-of-the-art labs around the world. Having the right facilities for new technological undertakings is also important to success. For example, as part of eorts to hit that target, RDECOM is looking to build the Soldier and Squad Performance Research Institute, which will consolidate ve laboratories into one and provide direct readiness to Soldiers with projects that improve their cognitive, physiological, physical and nutritional performance.

The technology combines a holographic computer built into a headset that lets users see, hear and interact with holograms within a simulated environment such as a living room or an office. Researchers are using the glasses to get a better understanding of how blast injuries affect Soldiers. When we get an urgent request for infor mation or work to be done, we want to be able to move quickly, Wins said. One key to doing that is having visibility on what everyone across the command is doing and standardizing business pro cesses so we can move at the speed of the technology, not the speed of the bureaucracy.

One of the benets of loading detailed budget information into FIRE is that it is automatically fed to the govern ment nancial accounting system so that it can be extracted easily if a customer needs more detail or supporting informa tion. With all of the changes that the team has added, we have a more transparent system that will allow us to troubleshoot nancial challenges that arise, said Paul Dunaway, RDECOM resource manage ment director.

Our science and technology doesnt do the Soldier any good if nobody knows about it, Wins said. Strategic commu nications help us develop the ecosystem we need to remain at the forefront of the many areas we work in, both internally and externally. It helps us tell Soldiers and battleeld commanders what we can do for them.

We will use our campaign plan as a guideline while we determine which technologies to focus on and how fast we can make them available for Soldiers, Wins said. Speed of delivery is key to our mission. She holds an M. She has 12 years of public aairs experience supporting DOD.

Theyre proving every day that when you integrate technologiesthe phone, the tablet, the computer, the TV, the cloud, etc. First responder communications are supported by LMRs, now supplied through an innovative arrangement involving two contractors and two enterprise LMR locations.

Each contractor supplies the primary core for one location and the secondary core for the other location. Army photo by Staff Sgt. Department of Vet erans Aairs medical clinic at Fort Bliss. In a scene too familiar to Americans today, active shooter alarms sounded in the William Beaumont Army Medical Center and two nearby schoolsthousands of innocent people were suddenly in danger.

Within two minutes of the rst shots, a handful of rst responders entered the building. Behind the scenes, mul tiple calls poured in, and the computer-automated dispatch system aided coordination of a swift and deci sive response. Equipped with interoperable land mobile radios LMRs , the diverse team coordinated actions under the direction of a single incident commander.

Acting with the eciency that comes from good communication, the team evacu ated more than 3, civilians and secured the crime scene in less than seven minutes. Two people were killed. Timeliness is critical during active-shooter incidents to minimize casualties. LMRs are the rst line of communication for rst responders at all Army installations. First responders are the heroes; LMRs make the heroes more eective. Kimberly Davidson and Mr. James Christophersen How one Army product office used strategic acquisition to drive competition and improve readiness in a specialized market dominated by two vendors.

Most users take no interest in how the system actually worksjust as most people dont think about what goes into making their cellphone work. But unlike a rearm, ashlight or other tool on a rst responders duty belt, the radio requires a vast behind-the-scenes network to provide state-of-the-art com munications capability at the push of a button.

Looking beyond the brick reveals the LMR system as a true system of sys tems, typically consisting of handheld portable radios, mobile radios, base sta tions, radio towers, software and other network components to extend the range and capability of each radio. Similar to many segments of the U. Just as Boe ing Co. Although two industry partners generate more competition than one, the modu larity and uniqueness of systems for each individual post, camp and station meant that one company would sometimes enjoy a competitive advantage over the other.

For example, if the Army used Motorola products at Camp A, it would make the most sense to use products from the same vendor for replacements and upgrades at Camp A for ease of compatibility. In such cases, the competition for a contract evaporated and left one company with a corner on the market. In a cash-strapped Army, resources directed away from operations and main tenance to meet more urgent readiness requirements and ght existing conicts left many systems in break-x sta tus, meaning systems were only xed and restored as they failed.

Informa tion assurance accreditations expired at numerous installations, putting longterm operational readiness in jeopardy. LMR is the first line of communication for all first responders at Army installations, and recent efforts by PEO EIS will make the system easier to maintainan important improvement since support for fielded LMR systems is not a primary duty on most Army installations.

Army photo by Scott T. Installation Management Command, had to look for alternative solutions. Here we come to the acquisition card trick. A Motorola primary and Harris secondary at the rst location, but a Harris primary and Motorola second ary at the second. Challenge 1: Communication No battle plan survives rst contact with the enemy, and no request for proposal RFP survives rst contact with industry partners. RFPs are prepared deliberately, thoughtfully and thoroughly, but they represent only the government side of the conversation.

Government acquisition teams and industry partners both have phenomenal people with brilliant ideas and dierent perspectives. By communicating rst, frequently and openly, government and industry partners can better comple ment one another's eorts.

When issuing its RFP, the product oce was condent that its industry partners would repurpose existing core systems from current installations to the new ACE sites to save on costs. Both government and industry partners were in sync on the big picture, but they found key dierences in proposed solutions. Patrick W. Burden, program executive officer for EIS. Challenge 2: Acquisition Agility In a joint statement Sept.

Bruce T. James J. Mingus, director of the Mission Command Cen ter of Excellence, and Gary Martin, program executive ocer for Command, Control and Communications Tactical, stated, "Our current acquisition process does not allow the Army to rap idly acquire and integrate emerging capabilities, allowing the warghter to keep pace with technology and stay ahead of the evolving threat. Building newer, more resilient and reliable systems requires time, espe cially for modern communications systems.

Now in post-award, the product oce projects another 18 months to deliver the rst installations. Major network improvements do not happen overnight. Army Chief of Sta Gen. Milley has identied readi ness as his No. Time and long-range plan ning are necessities to achieve Armywide readiness. Without adding any new sta, the team drew on its familiarity with the product and the industry to develop and implement innovative solutions that will fundamentally alter the Armys future LMR acquisitions.

ACE reduces the workload for system managers by centralizing many tasks and assigning them to dedicated sys tem managers based at the two core sites. Reducing the hands-on labor required to manage and maintain the elded systems improves readi ness and resiliency for rst-responder communications. She received a Commanders Award for Civilian Service in and She is Level III certied in program management. He has supported various oces in the Army acquisition enterprise since , including the Oce of the Assis tant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics and Technology.

He holds a B. To ensure readiness for the LMR systems that support communications during actual events as well as training exercises, the LMR product office consolidated nearly 70 localized systems into two enterprise-wide systems. Army photo by Sgt. The new systems can be slingloaded from a helicopter or rolled onto a C aircraft, improving agility and operational flexibility and aiding Army efforts to deploy right-sized units across contested domains at every stage of operations.

Army photo by 1st Lt. But PM Tactical Network also manages many other expeditionary line-of-sight and beyond-line-of-sight capabilities. Together, these programs provide the Army with an agile, modular toolkit of unied satellite and radio network capabilities to enable uninterrupted mission command and secure reliable voice, video and data communica tions at every point on the joint operational spectrum.

Our new name is not only a reection of our continued dedication to our mis sion, but a new way of doing business across the Army and joint forces, said Col. Our one-network vision sees the network as a whole, from the Soldier on the ground, to the commander maneu vering on the battleeld in his networked vehicle, to network connectivity back to home station.

Its all one network, no matter the domain, the location or the joint or coalition battleeld partner. PM Tactical Network delivers a scal able suite of integrated tactical network communication and network and cyber management capabilities to support todays complex joint, coalition and civil missions worldwide. PM Tactical Net work will still manage the core at-the-halt and on-the-move WIN-T network trans port equipment, enhancing network mobility, simplicity and cybersecurity, and will augment these core capabilities with robust expeditionary network trans port equipment.

Later, military operations in Desert Storm, as well as in Operation Enduring Freedom and Oper ation Iraqi Freedom, revealed that the outdated mobile subscriber equipment could no longer keep up with the pace of battle. WIN-T was conceived to solve this problem and enable mobile mission command on the battleeld. Army photo courtesy of the NTC Operations Group The world is changing, the ght is chang ing, and we must continue to evolve the Armys tactical network if we want to dominate on the battleeld.

Likewise, PM Tactical Network will continue to improve the Armys tacti cal network, enhancing its management, operation and defense across all echelons and domains. To meet the Armys strategic priori ties for readiness, responsiveness and regional engagement, ongoing capability advances in the tactical network pro grams are improving simplicity, mobility, modularity and agility. She has holds a B. While the program offices name is new, its mission is not: to provide warfighters unified satellite and radio network capabilities to enable uninterrupted mission command and secure communications across the joint operational spectrum.

Army photo by 2nd Lt. For Dr. John Putrus, mechanical and power and mobility engineer with the U. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center TARDEC , the average day might include hold ing a design review, writing a multimillion-dollar contract, driving trucks, testing vehicles under extreme conditions or brieng a general ocer. Hes also the engineer responsible for requirements development, system design, testing and production for these components, a position he has held since the program began in I am working on something that really matters, and I get to do it with the best team and leadership in DOD.

LTVs are the backbone of the Army, which makes being part of the program even more special to me. It was also home to the Detroit Arsenal tank plant, which closed in December I always loved looking at the military vehicles in front of the arsenal and wanted to be a part of that, he said. When I saw what they did, I was immediately hooked.

I wanted to be involved with the development of next-generation military vehicles, and working at TACOM is the best place you can do that. TACOM gives engineers the opportunity to be involved with much more than what a stan dard engineering position oers, he added. You control your destiny here and can be involved with as much as you want to be.

No one here will tell you you cannot get involved, and that mindset results in some of the most well-rounded engineers available. Hes learned a great deal over the course of his career, including one lesson he picked up early on: the importance of building relationships. I have taken the time to build as many relation ships as I can with multiple government organizations, defense OEMs, suppliers and co-workers. Ive found that if you work to help people quickly and eectively, those people will make sure to return the favor by responding quickly to you when you need help.

JLTVs will close capability gaps related to payload, per formance and protection while increasing, maneuverability and battleeld network connectivity. While the program is now on solid footing and in low-rate initial production, Putrus noted that there was a point in the JLTV program where the pro grams survival was at serious risk. In , Congress considered terminating the JLTV program over concerns about technology maturity and cost.

We had to nd a way to eciently and eec tively reduce the cost of the truck by almost 50 percent in order for the program to continue. Putrus was tasked with working on multiple design options, require ment changes and cost analyses that led to the CITA, which was approved by the vice chief of sta of the Army and allowed the program to proceed to milestone B. Being successful in this eort was critical to me, as I had spent my entire career developing the truck to replace the HMMWV, and no one on our program wanted to fail.

I have been lucky enough to be a part of the program from when it was an advanced concept technology demonstrator through the present day, where were in low-rate initial production and have built hundreds of vehicles. Once the project reaches full mate riel release and sustainment, I will have worked in all phases of the defense acquisition life cyclethats something that very few get to do.

Army Reserve photo by Master Sgt. Kevin Guite and Mr. Brian Frymiare F or those holding onto a restored Camaro in the garage or that old Ford F inherited from your uncle and sitting under the backyard tree, it should not be a shock to nd that the batteries in those vehicles exemplify the axiom use it or lose it. Most of these vehicles stand by until needed, which means that nearly 75 per cent of the TWV eet can be characterized as low-usage, or operated fewer than 3, miles each year.

Low-usage TWV systems have proven to be a big part of the Armys battery failure-and-replacement cycle. But the reality of a use-it-or-lose-it approach to battery life quietly attacks the readiness of the eet. MIL 29 PAGE 32 and analyzes data to support cost, reli ability, availability and maintainability studies; special requirements; and Army sta programs.

Replacing batteries has become a tre mendous burden for the Army logistics enterprise. Maintenance personnel expend time assessing and recharging batteries, removing and replacing spent ones and managing temporary storage locations for batteries that are no longer useable.

Removing the batteries from the site requires involvement of the Defense Reutilization and Marketing Oce or local contractors paid to remove and recycle the batteries. OSAT engineers, charged with detecting sys temic materiel readiness issues in elded systems and inuencing improvements using data-driven analyses, are studying small solar panels that, when attached to the hood or roof of TWV platforms, can provide from 20 to 60 watts of power to charge and maintain batteries on those vehicles.

Once attached, the solar panel can remain with the vehicle wherever it travels and requires no interaction or maintenance from the vehicles operator. By converting the suns power into elec tricity, solar panel solutions have the potential to increase the readiness of low-usage vehicles while reducing main tenance costs and the logistics burden caused by excessive battery management.

Solar panels are an old but still evolving technology that have gone though many advancements over the years. Bell Labs introduced solar cells for space activi ties in the s that boasted 6 percent eciency in converting light to power. Todays panels, capitalizing on years of design and manufacturing improve ments, are capable of converting sunlight into power at an eciency level of about 20 percent.

The solar panel industry studied the shortcomings of earlier products and applied lessons learned to todays products; AMSAA engineers are now working to develop requirements for a solar-powered charger system to mount on the Armys light tactical vehicles. At that time, the solar panels selected were too small for the load placed on them, and the panel controllers needed to govern batterycharging voltages were not watertight or fused to protect electrical components in case of an electrical short.

Multiplebattery congurations required for Army vehicle loads became unbalanced and were not properly regulated. Panels were not shade-tolerant, so the whole system stopped working when part of a cell was blocked from the sun. In addition, the panels ultimately were found to be too large, too heavy, too fragile and too expensive.

Newer, lighter, exible, more durable and less expensive panels are now operating with greater eciency, reducing the size and number of panels required for the amount of power pro duced. Such panels can be found on rooftops, cars, street signs, buoys, remote communication equipment and even rec reational vehicles. Waterproof controllers are now available that have been proven during marine applications, and have well-designed voltage regulators.

Additionally, panels now include bypass diodes that can route power around shaded or damaged cells, allowing a solar panel to incur multiple gunshots and continue to produce power without shorting out. Solar panels today are lighter, more durable and more efficient than previous generations of the technology, requiring fewer panels to generate a given amount of electricity.

Research has shown that a one-volt dierence between the two volt battery strings is not uncommon, but that one-volt dier ence in an AGM battery is the dierence between being percent charged and approximately 20 percent charged. AMSAA engineers, in coordination with other Army organizations, are leading an month analysis initiated in June that will research, congure and test various solar panel and controller options for onboard vehicle battery charging of Army AGM battery congurations.

Research eorts to date have uncovered a number of products that appear to be suitable for the evaluation. AMSAA will study controllers for their ability to govern power distribution to banks of batteries and to operate in adverse weather conditions.

Testing under such conditions has resulted in waterproof controllers with well-designed voltage regulators. When the Army first began investigating the use of solar panels to charge vehicle batteries, the inability to keep water out of controllers contributed to poor test results.

The cost and effort being expended on low-usage batteries begs for a better way to manage this challenge. By properly using ecient and robust solar charger systems, the Army will be able to maintain vehicle batteries within its lowusage TWV eet so that they will not need to be replaced until after theyve completed the full expected life of six to eight years. He holds an M. He has been a member of the Army Acquisition Corps since He is Level II certied in test and evaluation and in engineering.

The Armys massive fleet of TWVs, most of which are used only for such training, requires a way to keep batteries from dying when not being used regularly. Most hew toward minimizing or eliminating hurdles that slow the contracting and acquisition process, and debate rages over which are the highest of those hurdles. Kenneth A.

Bertram, principal assistant for acquisition for the U. Bertram pointed out that acquisition at USAMRMC diers from the usual Army process in that the medical research laboratories, advanced development and logistics teams, as well as contracting, are all under a single commanding general, Maj.

Barbara R. Holcomb, and a single milestone decision authority, Bertram. In fact, he noted, USAMRMC already looks much like the cross-functional teams that will be a key part of the Army modernization command spelled out by Army leadership and slated to debut later this year. I agree with others that our requirements and contracting process and our ability to partner with industry must be improved, he said.

Our product and program managers would probably say we should get rid of AOAs [analyses of alternatives] or market studies, but I think all of those things are necessary to what were doing. As principal assistant for acquisition, I lead those product DR. Army Meritori ous Service Medal; U. Food and Drug Administrations regulatory requirements and our academic and industry partners processes, to provide sustainable solutions, Bertram explained.

Keeping warghter needs, capability gaps and solutions as the true north is necessary to avoid becoming trapped in changing resource environments, mission drift and other peoples agen das, he said. Bertram spent 24 years in the Army, retiring in and becoming a member of the Senior Executive Service in July of that year. Having served in leadership positions through out his active-duty career, hes well-versed in the problems that warghters face in the eld and in garrison, and that knowledge enables USAMRMC to focus on developing the solutions that are needed in a prioritized fashion, he said.

Anyone in his position needs two skills, he said: the ability to listen and the ability to make a decision. You wont ever get all the information you need, but you have to make a decision: You cant ounder in the land of indecision. While those funds were primarily to support extramural or university research in cancerat the direction of Congressthe funds and research needed to be managed according to DOD acquisi tion regulations and processes.

I tran sitioned to a greater product development focusespecially for drugs and vaccinesas a result of my command time at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and earned Level III certication in program management.

He started in his current role in When I started, I noticed that our sta had much of the training and certication they needed. But what I didnt realize is that many had gotten that training a long time ago. What they learned wasnt applicable to the way we do contracting now, or they worked in just one area and werent well-versed in how other processes worked.

We spent a lot of time getting our sta the right training. Weve spent a lot of time with [the assistant secretary of the Army for acquisition, logistics and technology], the G-8, the House and the Senate, getting them to understand the value of what we do, he said. Weve walked people through the process of using our products as if they were a recruit, on the battleeld or recovering from injury, to demonstrate how our products work and how they help the warghter.

Keeping an eye on true north is good for the career, too. If you succeed on behalf of the warghter, career opportunities will present themselves abundantly. He also noted the importance of career-broadening opportuni ties, networking with other services, agencies and industry, and completing required and recommended acquisition training.

Lead something, he said. Solutions for the warghter only happen when someone provides initiative, responsibility and direction. Let that someone be you. The Army is looking for smaller, better technologies to operate in combat situations where prolonged field medical care will be common.

Elliot Botvinick sits in his oce on the campus of the University of Cali fornia UC , Irvine, holding a tiny device in the palm of his hand. It is smaller than a garage door opener, smaller than a standard business card even, and is so slight and inconspicuous that he might be able to stick one on a passing student without their noticing. It also might be the future of battleeld medicine, according to the U. Minds like Botvinicks may be exactly whats needed to conquer approaching combat scenarios that experts predict will look starkly dierent than the current version, ones where the ecient use of targeted medical knowledge may be the single most important key to victory.

Botvinicks handheld lactate monitor ts in per fectly then, as it features a wearable, subcutaneous microsensor designed to detect lactic acid levels, which rise in the body during episodes of critical illness and internal bleeding, both of which cause symptoms that arent always visible to the naked eye. Were feeling pretty condent, said Botvinick, a biomedical engineer. But while he is modestly opti mistic, the Army expresses its faith in new medical technologies with a bullhorn.

Our focus is squarely and specically on the health and welfare of the warghter, said U. Air Force Col. Ramin A. Khalili ASC. Lactate is the chemical form of lactic acid that the body produces and uses. And in that simple act of slapping, an insertion needle would be guided just under the skin [] and then by pull ing back on a sticker or tab, that needle would be removed and just a exible ber would remain.

From there, the assembled information would then be transmitted via Bluetooth technology to a wearable unit on the skin. While measuring lactate is not currently the standard of care in the eld chiey because current protocol requires blood samples to be drawn and then sent to a lab for study, a logistical nightmare in the eld , Botvinicks sensor measures lactate faster than the lactate level within the body can change, which makes it ideal for the uidity of long-term trans port situations, as well as transportation between levels of care.

As such, a number of prototype devices are being prepared for shipment to the U. Lactic acid levels rise during episodes of critical illness and internal bleeding, which may not be visible to the naked eye. Specically, experts predict the U. A recent capa bility needs assessment commissioned by military leadership named prolonged eld care as the No. Indeed, experts say future battleelds will require medi cal eorts to be more assertive at the point of injury as opposed to standard forward aid locations, a shift that also radically changes the concept of the golden hour standard of care, which relies on traditional medical transport to get service members treated within the rst hour after injury.

Antoinette Shinn, Ph. For instance, how are we going to maxi mize tele-health eorts in ways that will assist a far-forward medic, or maybe even no medic at all, in providing life-sustain ing care for up to 72 hours? Shinns portfolio is currently invest ing heavily in noninvasive hemorrhage detection capabilities for situations in which a warghter sustains an injury but is neither overtly bleeding nor visibly symptomatic yet.

A more fully realized version of the CCCRPs technological vision for the future is in the programs Neurotrauma and Traumatic Brain Injury portfo lio, where a slew of recent investments have evolved into a variety of potential solutions, each with substantial ben ets. With more than , cases of TBI across all military branches since , progress in this discipline is a top priority.

Weve got a number of promising tech nologies, but its not going to be just one of them that has all the answers for all environments, said portfolio manager Dr. Tammy Crowder. Its not going to be like the chickenpox vaccine where everybody gets the shot and then were all protected. Following initial feedback, NKI is in the process of reducing the exam time from 25 minutes to ve while using the same battery of tests.

Crowders team is looking for other tech nologies as well, including balance boards and additional virtual-reality devices that measure separate oculo-motor pathways. The Army believes the continuous lactate monitor could play a key role in future battlefield medicine. This prototype features a wearable, subcutaneous microsensor designed to detect critical illness and internal bleeding.

But these kinds of eorts will hopefully enable rst responders to oer more complete care. Weve got about 23 clinical inventions that are now in use worldwide, said Drake, an investigator with the CCCRPs photonics portfolio, plus another 14 platform technologies that have multiple applications, and then Ive got another 60 things in our pipeline. One of those technologies is a cutting-edge fractional laser developed specically with the military community in mind. In essence, the laser helps to remodel painful scars by creating thou sands of tiny holes on the scarred area, which data shows heal faster and cleaner than the original wound.

Mother Nature gets confused when she tries to heal a bigger wound, Drake said, adding that fractional lasers are used in the medical community to reduce pain, minimize disgurement and even erase some scars entirely. Devices for this kind of skin grafting have U. Conor Evans, a faculty member at Wellman. And so now we have a proj ect underway that we think will extend platelet storage time dramatically. According to the CCCRPs Hemorrhage Control and Resuscitation portfolio, current investments are geared toward developing an FDA-approved dried plasma product, while the goal for future blood products is to ensure sur vivability for at least six to 12 hoursa number that jumps to 72 hours for potential prolonged eld care scenarios.

According to Evans, the early data is fairly outstanding. While injuries thought to be fatal just a few years ago are no longer considered as such, burns are still com plicated by infection and other variables. Anthony Durkin, associate pro fessor at the university and the adjoining Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, relief for burn victims is as much a matter of tissue as it is time. Someone who has a burn wants to know as soon as possible whether theyre going to need more surgery or not.

SFDI uses the principles of diffuse optical spectroscopy to determine whether burned tissue is suitable for reconstructive surgery. SFDI images enable physicians to make early and accurate assessments of tissue viability for burn and wound management, reconstructive surgery and progressive monitoring of grafts and wound healing. Accord ing to the current standard of care, it can take up to three days after a burn for laser Doppler imaging to be performed, which determines whether the injured tissue is structurally sound enough to be reconstructed.

So Durkins team devel oped the cutting-edge spatial frequency domain imaging SFDI camera to assess the reconstructive potential of the tissue involved in burns and other wounds. Clinicians can then evaluate tissue viability in wounded areas and determine whether that tissue is a suitable candidate for reconstructive surgery, all within just a few hours.

We think we can buy a couple of days that can dramatically decrease the risk of scars and infection, Durkin said. In addition to being a noninvasive technology, the SFDI can dierentiate between supercial partial thickness burns and deep partial thickness burns, a relatively muddy area of wound des ignation within the medical community, according to Durkin.

As a result, Durkins team has received FDA approval for its technology for research purposes and began eorts to secure FDA clearance for a miniature version of the same device at the end of For as much eort and investment goes into the CCCRPs litany of products and projects, so many of those same eorts tourniquets, a balloon-tipped catheter that stops bleeding known as the REBOA and many knowledge productshave gone on to improve and save the lives of countless American citizens.

While that is not the stated priority of the CCCRP and its associated technologies, it is a substantial benet to the taxpaying public. After all, if a resilient military can help develop a resilient population which, in turn, continues to fuel an even more resilient militarythats the very deni tion of achievement. For more information, contact Chelsea B.

Before assuming his current role, he spent more than a decade as a broadcast journal ist, working in a number of cities across the country. Despite advances in technology, burns remain difficult to treat, and CCCRP is exploring new ways to speed healing and reduce infection. Terrence DOnofrio collaborated with U. Photo courtesy of Dr. Army software engineer Ross Arnold surveys whats left of the town of Arahama, four hours north of Tokyo.

Arahama was destroyed in by the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami that devastated Japan, killing 15, people and destroy ing more than , buildings, including every building in Arahama except the schoolhouse. Arnold, whos assigned to the U. In Spain, Mark Cumo, an engineer with the U. Army Communications-Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center who specializes in counter-improvised explosive device IED technologies, executes a research plan for studying the fragmenta tion eects of suicide vests used against U.

Gabriella Krohmal and Mr. Adam Genest ASC. Army biologist Leanne Chacon visits Chilean army logistics regiments, conducts market research and advises the armys health directorate on which biological identication technol ogy and equipment will most eectively assist its eorts to identify biological agents in food, water and other vectors. In , when Chacon was there, the Chilean army desperately needed this expertise and equipment, and quickly.

Ebola was ravaging West Africa, and that February, Chile conrmed the rst case of indigenous transmission of the Zika virus, on Easter Island. All three scientists are part of the U. Army lab oratories, research centers and program oces. Army and its allies. On June 25, , President John F. Kennedy, speaking before lead ers of the West German Bundestag, proclaimed that Germanys problems were Americas problems.

For we live in an age of interdependence, he declared. Partnership is not a posture but a pro cessa continuous process that grows stronger each year as we devote ourselves to common tasks. Secretary of Defense Robert S. Over the ensuing 54 years, the U. By building personal and professional relationships, Rushing left his ESEP assignment with a better understanding of that countrys challenges and of how Americans are perceived by their Korean counterparts.

Photo courtesy of Todd Rushing ESEP participants need to be willing to talk to people, willing to learn about new people and cultures. You cant be pedantic. Its important to come over with a little humility and be prepared to listen with an understanding that an exchange is a two-way street.

In every country we visit, it is wellrecognized that the U. Everyone feels like they need to work with the U. James T. Naylor, director of the U. But foreign partners always want to know why we want to work with them. I tell them: We have funding and state-ofthe-art facilities. But we want your ideas. Financial constraints in other countries require them to think creatively about materiel and aordability.

In the U. By sending U. ESEP participants also identify opportunities for future collabo ration with U. In the United Kingdom U. David Quinn and his familyfrom left, his wife, Melinda, and daughters Charlotte and Rachel Sagespent a year in France in during his assignment for AMRDEC, and he found it very enlightening to experience the culture and real people of France, not as a tourist but by working side by side.

Chacon, a biological agent detection expert for ECBC who had spent most of her Army career studying ways to detect airborne biological threats, helped Chilean officials detect foodand waterborne pathogens. Terrence DOnofrio, a research chemist from the U.

Research undertaken with Porton Man also could uncover how armor aects chemical or biological protectors in warghter suits, for example, DOnofrio said, or whether U. Army opera tional requirements should change. Experiments with Porton Man will help ensure that the warghter is protected from any chemical or biological challenge, he noted.

Because of geopolitical realities, South Korea is expediting its eorts in portable energy and is eagerly anticipating immedi ate payos from this technology. Griep hypothesized that South Korea could fully eld lithium-air battery technologies to South Korean troops several years before what the U. Army could have access to these advancements far sooner than had the U. If an ESEP participant were a proj ect manager or chief engineer at their home organization, for example, ESEP might oer the opportunity to reconnect with the basics by working directly in a laboratory.

ESEP oers participants the opportunity to build upon their areas of expertise while exploring new, challenging work in a similar but dierent environment or eld of study. Chacon, a biologi cal agent detection expert for ECBC who is matrixed to the Joint Program Executive Oce for Chemical and Bio logical Defense, spent most of her Army career studying ways to detect airborne biological threats, such as weaponized pathogens.

But when she arrived in Santi ago, Chile, for her ESEP assignment, she learned that airborne biological threat detection was not the Chilean armys pri ority. Instead, the Chileans needed help with a more pressing concern: identifying and protecting against water-, foodand vector-borne biological agents.

Chile has a lot of dierent environments, from deserts to mountains, tundra to the oceanfront, Chacon explained. Chacon engaged with Chilean industry and her contacts back in the U. She briefed senior Chilean leaders, advising them on the available equipment and making recommenda tions on which devices not only identied the desired agents, but also could be used in a variety of environments.

Upon her return to the U. Now Im working within the U. Army to further develop technology specically for that purpose. Adapting to change and exploring a new area of research also helped build Chacons condence. Now Im more ex ible and able to adapt to any situation. I used to be nervous conducting briengs and doing public speaking, but now that Ive experienced brieng senior Chilean leaders in Spanish, doing the same in the U. Strengthening alliances and attracting new partners is one of the top priorities spelled out by Secretary of Defense James Mattis.

History is com pelling on this point: Nations with strong allies thrive, while those without stagnate and wither, he wrote in an Oct. We will continue to work with our allies, partners, and coalitions to reinforce the safety and security that underpins peace and economic prosper ity for all nations. David Quinn, team lead for the Aero mechanics Division at the U. In many ways, I felt like an ambassador every day, going to work, going to the market, paying bills as an American in France.

It was way more than a technical exchangeit was building relationships, and it was very enlightening to experi ence the culture and real people of France, not as a tourist but by working side by side, he said. Since his return to the U. Todd Rushing, a research scientist from the U. ESEP has beneted me by expanding my perspective on the world and helping me to build a global net work, Rushing said.

I will also be able to improve the way I communicate with and relate to our international partners by better understanding how the U. Army commands for the associated costs of sending their engineers and scientists overseas to work in allied and friendly countries defense establishments. It doesnt cost DOD organizations much to participate. Army Corps of Engineers; U. Army Medical Command; U. Army Space and Missile Defense Command.

Even with the programs successes and benets, ESEP has suered the same resource constraints that programs and oces have experienced across DOD over the last several scal years. A 50 percent cut in appropriations in FY17 reduced the number of centrally supported over seas assignments to ve, and resource constraints projected in FY18 mean a continued reduction in supported overseas assignments, despite growing interest in the program.

Most applicants learn about the program through their command structures, either via email or in a job announcement. But for those seeking an international experience in which they can grow their careers and pursue new opportunities, ESEP is a great option. I havent even boarded the airplane yet, and Ive already grown a lot, learned a lot. Its not easy, but its a once-in-a-lifetime experience.

Foreign language skills are not required, though they are helpful. Personality is the most important factor, noted Naylor. ESEP participants need to be willing to talk to people, willing to learn about new people and cultures. You cant be pedan tic. Selected applicants will deploy overseas in October For more information, contact Gabriella Krohmal at gabriella. She earned her masters degree in international peace and conict resolution from American Universitys School of International Service, and holds a B.

Mark Griep, a U. Korea is making a major thrust in materials development to improve power and energy, Griep explained. If lithium-air batteries can convert oxygen into energy, batteries will be much lighter to carry but can theoretically reach the same energy density as gasoline. From October to September , Griep worked within South Koreas Agency for Defense Development ADD , where he translated his expertise with nanomaterials into a groundbreaking new material for lithium-air batteries.

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