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Shtyle's Den Cracking Free. Further information is on the server. Tolkien—inspired fantasy settings. One such example that would be of particular historical significance to the development of Dota 2 was Warhammer: The Game of Fantasy Battles. First published in by Bryan Ansell, Richard Halliwell, Graham Eckel, and Rick Priestley, Warhammer adapted the miniature tabletop combat of wargaming to the fantasy genre. Small, painstakingly detailed lead statuettes of wizards and warriors replaced traditional infantry and artillery.

The RTS genre of videogames adapts elements of the classic wargame to a computational environment. Miniature figures are still positioned around a modular battlefield with the intention of simulating large-scale combat, but many of the gameplay elements are automated and, as such, are far more granular than most tabletop games in terms of space and speed. Instead of placing hand-painted figurines on massive, foam-core topologies, RTS games automate dice rolls, unit positions, and even the passage of time.

The built structures in the Warcraft series range from the familiar to the fantastic with farmhouses, barracks, and blacksmiths sharing the same geographic space with goblin apothecaries, gryphon aviaries, and gnomish ateliers. Confronted with the formal and mathematical mechanisms driving these virtual battlefields, human play tarries with the number, the statistic, and the score that Connor calls ratio.

Ratio renders otherwise irreducible material components, spatial gestures, or temporal events abstract and exchangeable. The urge to compare scores, to reduce unique moments of play and make them fungible with one another, is also the motor driving what Roger Caillois , 12 calls agon, or competition.

Agon lies at the heart of the most ancient games and, not coincidentally, the heart of capital. With the drama and agony of competition, it is easy to forget that actions and events of both games and commodities must, at some point, be abstracted, or grammatized, into number. In the process, play becomes precisely the act of negotiating the discontinuity between phenomenal experience or, on the other hand, material substance and the abstract rules of the game or market.

Both play and game, in this cut up form, entail utopian horizons—two divergent lines of flight propelling human desire. This dream of an immersive, escapist, autonomous, and fantastic gamespace structures consumption and production within the videogame industry. More than merely selling entertainment products, the games industry sells an ideology. Here the practical possibilities of play are expropriated into yet another form of statistical labor, an affective economy privatized within an industry designed from the ground up to capture and mobilize desire.

However, despite these utopian fantasies, play and game do not stand absolutely apart, nor do they precisely correlate. There has never been a game that is absolutely unnecessary, immaterial, and ahistorical.

Since the Reiswitz family, the material and historical friction that has always existed between rules and play has been expressed and allegorized through the inclusion of probabilistic or chance-based mechanics. Probability is the play of number that number itself makes possible.

From wargames to Warhammer to Warcraft, it is probability that most closely resembles the deeply commingled, historical relation between game and play—and the primary operation driving The Turn of the Tide. In pinball cabinets, electric toys, and videogames physical forces like gravity, momentum, friction, acceleration, and electricity—along with the infelicities of MacDraw- and MacDraft-style interfaces—replace the rules of the game sometimes skeuomorphically simulating the rules of analog games, sometimes disavowing rules altogether.

In digital games rules become mechanized; in analog games mechanics are often ignored. Whereas the official rulebook of Major League Baseball details the composition of each team, methods for scoring, and the precise geometry of the field, it does not include the gravity of the Earth see Figure 5. Whereas videogames attempt to reduce all player actions and social rules to their mechanics, exposing the ideological drive to conflate the game with play, metagaming entails the material, historical, and experiential complexities that videogames that the ideological avatar of play rule out.

How disabled players negotiate standardized control schemes, how siblings take turns according to house rules, how partygoers drink for each digital death, and even how probabilities predict play are all metagames. Metagaming accounts for those external rules or social customs built in, on, around, and through videogames. The strategies of speedrunners, preferences of pro gamers, and even the tendencies of conspicuous consumers are not what is packaged and sold in stores, distributed on digital networks, or produced by hardworking programmers.

Whereas the videogame can be reduced to an abstract set of binary numerals or algorithmic instructions that nevertheless structure the way we play, metagaming constitutes the material histories exceeding the algorithm. And one of the most intricate and influential metagames evolved and continues to evolve within Warcraft III is a mod called The Defense of the Ancients. The personal preferences and quirks of individual players coupled with the coevolution of common strategies and patch updates is the metagame of Dota 2.

Ninety-two heroes with about four abilities each who can use one hundred and thirty-eight items offer an almost inconceivable range of statistical variation not to mention the specific strategies executed in real time within a match see Figure 5. With the draft, Dota 2 offloads game design decisions like the balance between various hero combinations to the players, as they collectively design—via the ever evolving metagame—what kind of Dota 2 they will play. The Siren-Seer metagame is all too evident in the statistics for The International.

Out of ninety-two possible heroes, the top three banned and picked throughout the entire tournament were Dark Seer at times and Naga Siren tied with Rubick at Captains used their limited number of picks and bans to prevent the competition from lining up overpowered combinations of heroes. Oh god, if they give up the Tidehunter. How do you take a fight? Yet, the footage of the team gathered together in their glass box shows the Ukrainians grinning ear-to-ear and giggling mischievously.

While not the strongest or fastest hero in Dota 2, in , Tidehunter was a very defensive pick who could be used to support fragile teammates and buy them time to level up and get some gold. Beyond his early game utility, Tidehunter also has a powerful ultimate ability called Ravage that can stun a whole team if they are clustered together and is often used to initiate large 5 vs.

In this tournament, in this series, in this match against this team, and with this specific metagame, how could picking Tidehunter go wrong? Like Counter-Strike , Team Fortress , and Day of Defeat before it, Valve has built a business on converting player-produced metagames into service platforms that flatten leisure activities alongside other forms of labor. Werner [29]. In All Your History, and in games journalism more broadly, Dota is presented as a historical anomaly, a mutant mod with evolutionary origins outside the umbrella of the games industry.

The industry—a complex ecosystem of corporate stockholders, development studios, trade shows, global distribution companies, retail vendors, and both independent and completely dependent journalists—attempts to subsume much of the history of videogames and games in general within its sphere of influence.

Although Dota is a mutant, it did not spontaneously emerge. Featuring a seemingly counterintuitive mixture of gameplay borrowed from RTS, action adventure, roleplaying, and tower defense games, AoS instituted many of the defining albeit nascent features of Dota : the map, the mechanics, and the mission.

Yet the mod was underplayed. The bizarre mixture of mechanics would not prove viable until remade in another game engine: the Warcraft III World Editor Compared to an early four-lane tower defense map like Aeon of Strife top , the onscreen mini-maps from Dota 2 left , Heroes of Newerth middle , and League of Legends right reveal a very similar, symmetric design for team versus team gameplay. Blizzard released Warcraft III, along with its editing tools, and modders went crazy.

Importantly, the original DotA focused more on player-versus-player PvP competition than AoS by allowing two teams of five players aided by AI rather than a single set of players working together against a computerized opponent. With these basic elements added to AoS, DotA began to gain steam. With so many tweaks and changes being tested out within this ad hoc, player-driven development community, compilations emerged over time featuring the most popular mechanics and hero units borrowed from dozens of different games.

More than simply building a clearinghouse for favorite heroes, items, and abilities, Feak took on the mercurial task of consolidating, tweaking, balancing, and debugging the game with a loose team of modders who designed many of the features that have come to define the genre.

Feak worked on DotA Allstars until version 6. But rather than building a game around leveling a single unit for cooperative player versus environment PvE challenges like World of Warcraft, DotA focused on manipulating individual units in a team-based, PvP setting. Because the game emerged from a community of modders rather than the games industry proper, for many years DotA was undervalued in terms of both economic and cultural capital.

After the newfound euphoria for the MMO and a rocky shift of power, Neichus picked up where Feak left off before handing Allstars over to IceFrog, who continued to labor in relative obscurity and without pay to maintain DotA.

Not much is known about IceFrog, the elusive and longest-serving developer of DotA who began modding the game with Feak and Neichus in October Whereas Eul propagated the explosion of experiments with his JASS source code and, following the first Allstars mods, Feak carefully selected features which would come to define DotA, IceFrog introduced a half-decade-long, glacial age in which the mod stabilized and hardened around a centralized director, a unified design philosophy, and an international scope.

The long evolution of DotA as a species of software slowed as player productivity migrated from the creation of ever-multiplying mods to the culture of competitive play. While Neichus co-authored a few versions of the map starting with 6. With a stable, international version of DotA Allstars available in , version 5. In , international teams were beginning to treat DotA like a sport and with its aging technical requirements the mod could be played on almost any personal computer, from the newest gaming laptops to the beige towers and CRT screens of the late nineties.

With a thriving community and informal global economy, it was only a matter of time before DotA moved from the realm of play to that of profit. Rather than design a new game with original characters, edited map, and different items like League of Legends or attempt a faithful remake of the Warcraft III mod with similar frame rates and polygon counts like Heroes of Newerth , Valve tasked IceFrog and Eul with translating DotA to their Source Engine.

With Dota 2, vestigial features that arose due to the eccentricities of the Warcraft III World Editor become deliberate game design choices. Whereas both Riot and Blizzard appealed to the rights of the community of modders and players, each planned to protect the name of the game for its own interests. The land grab that took place between and in the form of these trademark lawsuits demonstrates one way that corporations enclose the metagame. Despite its generality, Riot promoted the acronym MOBA multiplayer online battle arena as a way to distance their product, League of Legends, from Dota after Valve acquired the proprietary eponym.

Even the transition from the acronym DotA to the word Dota reified the game as a commodity and relocated the metagame from early communities of play built on the exchange of unique designs to a service platform for cosmetic markets, e-sports, and emerging forms of spectatorship. The technical evolution of Dota began in the antediluvian wake of RTS games and, after surfacing as one of the most successful mods of all time, generated an entire genre of competitive play.

Under the management of IceFrog and newly funded by Valve, Dota 2 is less a sequel and more of a service platform, expropriating the metagaming practices that have long supported the game as a global sport. Yet, the calcification of the play into a professional sport—specifically what has come to be known as e-sports—marks a moment when the evolution of Dota stabilizes and moves away from the production of software to culture.

Well beyond the evolution of Dota and its recent acquisition by Valve, the origins of e-sports stretch back to the development of the earliest electronic games. Taylor offers a rich history of competitive videogaming and documents a half-century of attempts to position computer games within the arena of spectator sport. In one respect, games have always engaged agon, the cut between ratio and kinesis. The technical operations of digital media automate this kind of cutting as switches, transistors, and semiconductors cleave binary bits of data from otherwise analog pulses of electricity.

Even at the beginning, videogames conflated these two related forms of agony, allegorizing their digital processes of grammatization, individuation, and quantification via the cut of competition. Tennis for Two was, of course, for two players, and Spacewar! Although individual players played early videogames games serially, scoreboards added a social component, a historical record that could be competed and compared with over an extended time period.

As Taylor , 4—5 recounts, in the early eighties there were televised game shows in which players competed against each other, such as Starcade —84 , that stand as further attempts to convert videogames into a spectator sport. These two traditions manifest in two distinct types of sport: the player-versus-player competitions of the strategy, fighting, and first-person shooter communities and the player-versus-records of the speedrunning, high-scoring, and some MMO communities.

Only the most naive and ahistorical would suggest the coveted legitimacy of sport is bestowed objectively, outside of any deep cultural values about what constitutes meaningful human and social action. From another angle, all sports are e-sports.

Undifferentiated and irreducible physical fields, material equipment, human bodies, and other forms of play are reduced to a calculation, a score, a cut. Moreover, this form of abstraction that marks one player a winner and the other a loser could be said to go by another name: capital. As evidenced by The International in , the burgeoning movement of electronic sports models itself closely on the culture and business of professional sports. Games like Dota 2 inspire international tournaments, lavish prize pools, diverse media coverage, lucrative sponsorship deals, live commentary in dozens of languages, and communities of fans who tune in weekly not to play, but to watch their favorite videogames.

The mathematical probabilities governing play within MLB, for example, extend well beyond the diamond and the dugout to include marketing, management, and, most of all, money. The more money saturates the culture of videogaming, the more sportslike it becomes.

After all, money is the ultimate referee and one of the first digital medium. The subtitle uses a square sans serif font, connoting the pixelated graphics of videogames. These small changes adapt the iconography of national sports to a digital medium. With Dota 2, spectatorship is no longer a superfluous byproduct of gaming, but a productive part of a much broader ecology in which all player activities are measured and funneled back into the development of the game.

Watching is not merely an index of revenue or of play but a form of capital accumulation based on attention. The reconfiguration of modes of spectatorship in games like Dota 2 is just a small part of a much larger project of redefining the systems of value that circulate around gaming and recasting play as a form of productivity within a flattened corporate gamespace. The problem is how to capture these forms of undervalued production.

With Dota 2, Valve has invented increasingly complex and compelling ways to augment, gamify, track, and play with spectatorship. E-sports flourishes in a complex media ecology designed around converged modes of playing, laboring, and watching. Beyond the hype of these astronomical figures and despite myriad analytical tools, players and spectators alike had trouble decoding The Turn of the Tide.

Did the virtuosic play of pro gamers reverse the outcome of the match, or did the deterministic, microtemporal processes of technical media overshadow their agency? Of course, the answer is in the metagame. Like high-speed film appears in slow motion when played back at thirty or sixty frames per second, Krukar rendered the sub-second record of mouse clicks and key presses in Dota 2 at a thousand frames per second.

Instead of illegible explosions of frenetic energy, the mouse movements and button mashing of professional players are organized according to the serial mechanisms and statistical record of The Turn of the Tide.

With 17, lines of logged combat events, the spectacular narrative of Ukrainian underdogs facing the impenetrable wall of Chinese Dota may be replaced by an exact set of serial events. Due to the time scale of human reflexes and the delay of team coordination, a window emerges for another probability. Operating with as much temporal efficiency as possible, it took Zhou and Faith 0. While their avatars are immobilized by the sleep spell, each member frantically mashes buttons.

The Ukrainians wager that they can tap faster than Zhou and Faith can coordinate their spells. Even if a tap lands a single frame before Song of the Siren ends, the next rote tap should theoretically occur before Faith can coordinate his single button press. Beyond the metagame of popular picks and bans at The International in , Rubick, the Grand Magus, represents a kind of metagame in and of himself.

The tighter the window, the lower the chance a skilled Rubick can steal the coveted spell. Faith understood this. Whereas Faith hesitates for 1. Next, Dendi turns the purloined Ravage against iG by letting loose his stolen spell on the tightly clustered team. The 0. Here The Turn of the Tide ceases to correlate to the human experience of seeing the drama unfold at The International or even playing Dota 2, but signals a different turn altogether. As a way of establishing more robust play, anticipating probable outcomes, and tracking the metagame, a cottage industry of statistical aggregation and analysis has flourished around competitive Dota 2.

Lacking the institutionalization of large databases available to more established professional sports, websites like Dota-Academy. In the case of the game statistics surrounding Dota 2, they have taken on a life of their own and become a metagame in their own right. In addition to Dota Academy and the Dota 2 Replay Parser, Carlucci produced the first Dota 2 Fantasy League [54] and found himself, after a stroke of luck, extemporaneously commentating The International in Making his first official appearance as a live commenter during The International in , Carlucci donned a diverse array of flamboyant leisure suits with unbuttoned collared shirts that reveal both chest hair and a silver Dota 2 medallion.

Beyond wearing fluorescent costumes and adopting colorful affectations, the statistics Bruno presents while broadcasting are not particularly useful, or at least not useful in a traditional, positivist sense. Whereas Dota Academy, the Replay Parser, and the Fantasy League represent rigorous investigations into the untapped potential of data analytics in Dota 2, during The International the Statsman worked behind the scenes to produce statistical information while simultaneously undermining the authority of statistics.

That makes. Lumi is 5—5. As discussed earlier in the chapter, Chinese stereotypes and racism saturated The International. Finally, Carlucci drew attention to the absurd specificity of certain statistical anomalies as a means of questioning the very possibility of generalizable or comparable actions and events.

This kind of statistician is no longer interested in the probability of signal to noise, but in the significance of all noises. Pataphysics will examine the laws governing the exceptions. In this way they caution the viewer against the narrative potential of numbers by a surrealist statsman. The agony and augury of the statsman is the constant, nagging knowledge of this philosophical tension.

What probably should have happened in the match actually happened across the greater Dota tournament. With very little fanfare and lots of safe, highly calculated plays, iG won The International and a million dollars in The far less crowd-pleasing but overall more effective method of playing to the numbers rather than to the audience or even to individual games is what would ultimately take the million-dollar prize—and this result suited Valve just fine.

Beyond The International tournament, there was another international game the company was winning. With over a hundred million PC gamers in China—worth a whopping 6. And the undercurrency in which Valve traffics is not fame, not profit, not entertainment, not fun though these can be shored up , but productivity. Before their incorporation in and well before their release of Dota 2 a decade later, Valve was in the business of managing metagames. In , Gabe Newell and Mike Harrington left their jobs at Microsoft to found a new company based on three undervalued business strategies.

Towering above the operating system was the shareware release of Doom , the early first-person shooter developed by id software. Doom [had] a completely different approach to connecting users with value. For McKenzie Wark, the locus of power no longer rests with those who control the mode of production, but lies instead in the management of the vectors, connections, and networks organizing information—from the financial instruments responsible for high frequency trading to the social media platforms that collect user-generated content.

What if the ruling class of our time were not exactly capitalist any more, but more properly vectoralist?

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Are you on the hunt for excellent sports picks. ProTipster has over 10, tips posted every day in a range of sports from Football to Baseball and Basketball to Ice Hockey. All tips are individually rated on a scale from 0 to 10 to make it easier for users to find the best tips to improve their betting profits. All tips are posted right here on the tips page. Registered users can filter sports picks on the page by sport, category and tournament, allowing them to filter tips down to individual matches.

There are also options to filter by match start time and by odds interval for users looking for specific value or timing. The bizarre mixture of mechanics would not prove viable until remade in another game engine: the Warcraft III World Editor Compared to an early four-lane tower defense map like Aeon of Strife top , the onscreen mini-maps from Dota 2 left , Heroes of Newerth middle , and League of Legends right reveal a very similar, symmetric design for team versus team gameplay.

Blizzard released Warcraft III, along with its editing tools, and modders went crazy. Importantly, the original DotA focused more on player-versus-player PvP competition than AoS by allowing two teams of five players aided by AI rather than a single set of players working together against a computerized opponent. With these basic elements added to AoS, DotA began to gain steam.

With so many tweaks and changes being tested out within this ad hoc, player-driven development community, compilations emerged over time featuring the most popular mechanics and hero units borrowed from dozens of different games. More than simply building a clearinghouse for favorite heroes, items, and abilities, Feak took on the mercurial task of consolidating, tweaking, balancing, and debugging the game with a loose team of modders who designed many of the features that have come to define the genre.

Feak worked on DotA Allstars until version 6. But rather than building a game around leveling a single unit for cooperative player versus environment PvE challenges like World of Warcraft, DotA focused on manipulating individual units in a team-based, PvP setting.

Because the game emerged from a community of modders rather than the games industry proper, for many years DotA was undervalued in terms of both economic and cultural capital. After the newfound euphoria for the MMO and a rocky shift of power, Neichus picked up where Feak left off before handing Allstars over to IceFrog, who continued to labor in relative obscurity and without pay to maintain DotA. Not much is known about IceFrog, the elusive and longest-serving developer of DotA who began modding the game with Feak and Neichus in October Whereas Eul propagated the explosion of experiments with his JASS source code and, following the first Allstars mods, Feak carefully selected features which would come to define DotA, IceFrog introduced a half-decade-long, glacial age in which the mod stabilized and hardened around a centralized director, a unified design philosophy, and an international scope.

The long evolution of DotA as a species of software slowed as player productivity migrated from the creation of ever-multiplying mods to the culture of competitive play. While Neichus co-authored a few versions of the map starting with 6. With a stable, international version of DotA Allstars available in , version 5.

In , international teams were beginning to treat DotA like a sport and with its aging technical requirements the mod could be played on almost any personal computer, from the newest gaming laptops to the beige towers and CRT screens of the late nineties. With a thriving community and informal global economy, it was only a matter of time before DotA moved from the realm of play to that of profit. Rather than design a new game with original characters, edited map, and different items like League of Legends or attempt a faithful remake of the Warcraft III mod with similar frame rates and polygon counts like Heroes of Newerth , Valve tasked IceFrog and Eul with translating DotA to their Source Engine.

With Dota 2, vestigial features that arose due to the eccentricities of the Warcraft III World Editor become deliberate game design choices. Whereas both Riot and Blizzard appealed to the rights of the community of modders and players, each planned to protect the name of the game for its own interests. The land grab that took place between and in the form of these trademark lawsuits demonstrates one way that corporations enclose the metagame.

Despite its generality, Riot promoted the acronym MOBA multiplayer online battle arena as a way to distance their product, League of Legends, from Dota after Valve acquired the proprietary eponym. Even the transition from the acronym DotA to the word Dota reified the game as a commodity and relocated the metagame from early communities of play built on the exchange of unique designs to a service platform for cosmetic markets, e-sports, and emerging forms of spectatorship.

The technical evolution of Dota began in the antediluvian wake of RTS games and, after surfacing as one of the most successful mods of all time, generated an entire genre of competitive play. Under the management of IceFrog and newly funded by Valve, Dota 2 is less a sequel and more of a service platform, expropriating the metagaming practices that have long supported the game as a global sport. Yet, the calcification of the play into a professional sport—specifically what has come to be known as e-sports—marks a moment when the evolution of Dota stabilizes and moves away from the production of software to culture.

Well beyond the evolution of Dota and its recent acquisition by Valve, the origins of e-sports stretch back to the development of the earliest electronic games. Taylor offers a rich history of competitive videogaming and documents a half-century of attempts to position computer games within the arena of spectator sport.

In one respect, games have always engaged agon, the cut between ratio and kinesis. The technical operations of digital media automate this kind of cutting as switches, transistors, and semiconductors cleave binary bits of data from otherwise analog pulses of electricity. Even at the beginning, videogames conflated these two related forms of agony, allegorizing their digital processes of grammatization, individuation, and quantification via the cut of competition.

Tennis for Two was, of course, for two players, and Spacewar! Although individual players played early videogames games serially, scoreboards added a social component, a historical record that could be competed and compared with over an extended time period. As Taylor , 4—5 recounts, in the early eighties there were televised game shows in which players competed against each other, such as Starcade —84 , that stand as further attempts to convert videogames into a spectator sport.

These two traditions manifest in two distinct types of sport: the player-versus-player competitions of the strategy, fighting, and first-person shooter communities and the player-versus-records of the speedrunning, high-scoring, and some MMO communities.

Only the most naive and ahistorical would suggest the coveted legitimacy of sport is bestowed objectively, outside of any deep cultural values about what constitutes meaningful human and social action. From another angle, all sports are e-sports. Undifferentiated and irreducible physical fields, material equipment, human bodies, and other forms of play are reduced to a calculation, a score, a cut.

Moreover, this form of abstraction that marks one player a winner and the other a loser could be said to go by another name: capital. As evidenced by The International in , the burgeoning movement of electronic sports models itself closely on the culture and business of professional sports. Games like Dota 2 inspire international tournaments, lavish prize pools, diverse media coverage, lucrative sponsorship deals, live commentary in dozens of languages, and communities of fans who tune in weekly not to play, but to watch their favorite videogames.

The mathematical probabilities governing play within MLB, for example, extend well beyond the diamond and the dugout to include marketing, management, and, most of all, money. The more money saturates the culture of videogaming, the more sportslike it becomes. After all, money is the ultimate referee and one of the first digital medium.

The subtitle uses a square sans serif font, connoting the pixelated graphics of videogames. These small changes adapt the iconography of national sports to a digital medium. With Dota 2, spectatorship is no longer a superfluous byproduct of gaming, but a productive part of a much broader ecology in which all player activities are measured and funneled back into the development of the game. Watching is not merely an index of revenue or of play but a form of capital accumulation based on attention.

The reconfiguration of modes of spectatorship in games like Dota 2 is just a small part of a much larger project of redefining the systems of value that circulate around gaming and recasting play as a form of productivity within a flattened corporate gamespace. The problem is how to capture these forms of undervalued production. With Dota 2, Valve has invented increasingly complex and compelling ways to augment, gamify, track, and play with spectatorship.

E-sports flourishes in a complex media ecology designed around converged modes of playing, laboring, and watching. Beyond the hype of these astronomical figures and despite myriad analytical tools, players and spectators alike had trouble decoding The Turn of the Tide. Did the virtuosic play of pro gamers reverse the outcome of the match, or did the deterministic, microtemporal processes of technical media overshadow their agency?

Of course, the answer is in the metagame. Like high-speed film appears in slow motion when played back at thirty or sixty frames per second, Krukar rendered the sub-second record of mouse clicks and key presses in Dota 2 at a thousand frames per second. Instead of illegible explosions of frenetic energy, the mouse movements and button mashing of professional players are organized according to the serial mechanisms and statistical record of The Turn of the Tide.

With 17, lines of logged combat events, the spectacular narrative of Ukrainian underdogs facing the impenetrable wall of Chinese Dota may be replaced by an exact set of serial events. Due to the time scale of human reflexes and the delay of team coordination, a window emerges for another probability.

Operating with as much temporal efficiency as possible, it took Zhou and Faith 0. While their avatars are immobilized by the sleep spell, each member frantically mashes buttons. The Ukrainians wager that they can tap faster than Zhou and Faith can coordinate their spells. Even if a tap lands a single frame before Song of the Siren ends, the next rote tap should theoretically occur before Faith can coordinate his single button press.

Beyond the metagame of popular picks and bans at The International in , Rubick, the Grand Magus, represents a kind of metagame in and of himself. The tighter the window, the lower the chance a skilled Rubick can steal the coveted spell. Faith understood this. Whereas Faith hesitates for 1. Next, Dendi turns the purloined Ravage against iG by letting loose his stolen spell on the tightly clustered team. The 0. Here The Turn of the Tide ceases to correlate to the human experience of seeing the drama unfold at The International or even playing Dota 2, but signals a different turn altogether.

As a way of establishing more robust play, anticipating probable outcomes, and tracking the metagame, a cottage industry of statistical aggregation and analysis has flourished around competitive Dota 2. Lacking the institutionalization of large databases available to more established professional sports, websites like Dota-Academy.

In the case of the game statistics surrounding Dota 2, they have taken on a life of their own and become a metagame in their own right. In addition to Dota Academy and the Dota 2 Replay Parser, Carlucci produced the first Dota 2 Fantasy League [54] and found himself, after a stroke of luck, extemporaneously commentating The International in Making his first official appearance as a live commenter during The International in , Carlucci donned a diverse array of flamboyant leisure suits with unbuttoned collared shirts that reveal both chest hair and a silver Dota 2 medallion.

Beyond wearing fluorescent costumes and adopting colorful affectations, the statistics Bruno presents while broadcasting are not particularly useful, or at least not useful in a traditional, positivist sense. Whereas Dota Academy, the Replay Parser, and the Fantasy League represent rigorous investigations into the untapped potential of data analytics in Dota 2, during The International the Statsman worked behind the scenes to produce statistical information while simultaneously undermining the authority of statistics.

That makes. Lumi is 5—5. As discussed earlier in the chapter, Chinese stereotypes and racism saturated The International. Finally, Carlucci drew attention to the absurd specificity of certain statistical anomalies as a means of questioning the very possibility of generalizable or comparable actions and events. This kind of statistician is no longer interested in the probability of signal to noise, but in the significance of all noises. Pataphysics will examine the laws governing the exceptions.

In this way they caution the viewer against the narrative potential of numbers by a surrealist statsman. The agony and augury of the statsman is the constant, nagging knowledge of this philosophical tension. What probably should have happened in the match actually happened across the greater Dota tournament.

With very little fanfare and lots of safe, highly calculated plays, iG won The International and a million dollars in The far less crowd-pleasing but overall more effective method of playing to the numbers rather than to the audience or even to individual games is what would ultimately take the million-dollar prize—and this result suited Valve just fine.

Beyond The International tournament, there was another international game the company was winning. With over a hundred million PC gamers in China—worth a whopping 6. And the undercurrency in which Valve traffics is not fame, not profit, not entertainment, not fun though these can be shored up , but productivity.

Before their incorporation in and well before their release of Dota 2 a decade later, Valve was in the business of managing metagames. In , Gabe Newell and Mike Harrington left their jobs at Microsoft to found a new company based on three undervalued business strategies.

Towering above the operating system was the shareware release of Doom , the early first-person shooter developed by id software. Doom [had] a completely different approach to connecting users with value. For McKenzie Wark, the locus of power no longer rests with those who control the mode of production, but lies instead in the management of the vectors, connections, and networks organizing information—from the financial instruments responsible for high frequency trading to the social media platforms that collect user-generated content.

What if the ruling class of our time were not exactly capitalist any more, but more properly vectoralist? What if a fraction of that ruling class acquired its political-economic power through the ownership and control of vectors along which financial information flows, and with it the flows of that information, not to mention stocks of these weird para-things, these instruments of a purely digital private property, with somewhat attenuated relations back to referents in other natures, other worlds.

The vectoral class represents a new species of managers who do not simply control the mode of production, but crucially, mediate connection, dissemination, and access to information. It extracts value by offering information for free, but extracting more information in return—surplus information.

Valve has no management, no quality assurance, no marketing department, and no job titles. When Newell and Harrington organized the company in the mids, they not only hoped to exploit the exponentially decreasing friction between producer and consumer implicitly understanding that their player base was ultimately the more significant substrate of outsourced labor , but began investing, counterintuitively, in the most valuable employees instead of outsourcing cheap labor.

For Valve, productivity is measured in two ways. First, the pure volume of output is quantified. There are about employees at Valve, but the productivity and value of the players is as significant as the contributions of those on salary. In the case of Dota , they chose to insource a preexistent development team, flattening play into a form of productivity that could then be measured in terms of the work logs of any Valve employee.

A person who just plays the game is generating some value for the other nine people playing. Players are no longer thought of simply as customers for whom the company must deliver, but as fellow producers within a gamespace of global capital who voluntarily generate surplus. By offering three thousand unique applications to over 75 million active users, generating more Internet traffic than most countries as one of the largest bandwidth consumers in the world, and growing about 50 percent a year since , for Valve play is not only a byproduct, but a valuable resource.

Dota 2 is built around these transactions, beginning at the individual player level, passing through the Workshop—where user-created cosmetic items begin their journey to the in-game store, earning six-figure sums for some—all the way to the competitive scene, dispersed among dozens of tournament showrunners who sell tickets and merchandise through the game client.

Thursten , With the cosmetic markets associated with Team Fortress 2, Counter-Strike: Global Offensive, and Dota 2, Valve has created an economic system that flourishes through the contributions of both local employees in Bellevue and remote players on Steam. With Valve taking a cut of the tens of thousands of dollars circulating between individual players not to mention twenty million dollar collective prize pools , it would appear the metagame is quite profitable.

Rather than treat money as the ultimate product, it has become an integral part of a generative, productive process. No longer simply a medium of exchange, money is the equipment with which both the company and its customers play. Beyond the flattening of an office space, the flattening of a corporate hierarchy, the flattening of software design, and the flattening of play, Valve is also flattening one videogame to another as a means of building a metaverse in which money can flow to the most valuable parts of the network.

Most games exist independent of one another, as magic software circles or secret Internet enclaves whose forms of production virtual currency or otherwise are often imagined as incommensurable with one another. As anyone moving from one MMO to another or switching e-sports knows, exchanging content or migrating production between two games is the equivalent of trying to mail a postcard to Mars—content is returned to sender to waste away within an abandoned virtual world.

Money is the code through which Valve is building its metagame of metagames. The act of making money is also tied to the generation of alternative forms of currency. We started to see things like inflation. We started to see deflation. We started to see users creating their own versions of currencies, mediums of exchange.

Countries started to create regulatory structures so in Korea you actually have to create the equivalent of a W-4 form for your players to account for the virtual income they get in playing your game. And what do we do about purchase price parity? Should we adjust drop rates to provide welfare to people who are playing in lower incomes or do we drop the value of their drops to reflect the fact that they can trade their hats for cheeseburgers? Once players begin to create value and that value can be translated between different domains, there is nothing to stop the equivalency of in-game object to real-world goods and services.

Gabe Newell himself, who confessed to playing Dota around twenty hours a week during its development, has experienced the same kind of flattened productivity throughout his life. At the end of a lecture at the University of Texas, Newell briefly turned to a discussion of his own hobbies, sheepishly admitting that even his play tends to eventually become work. Newell explains,. I have a million dollar CNC [milling machine]. Well, the reality is all the problems related to machining are software problems.

The difference between carving something out of aluminum and drawing something in 3D space are astonishingly similar. And the way that you keep this thing busy is you standardize a lot of stuff and create a network interface so jobs can flow through this thing.

And this hobby of mine ends up looking like Counter-Strike in terms of the sets of decisions you would make to improve it. Recalling his work on Windows at Microsoft and Steam at Valve, Newell perversely finds himself confronting non-standardized interfaces and attempting to maximize the efficiency of industrial processes in his spare time.

Under a vectoral regime there is no hobby. There is no fun, there is no work: only productivity for player, laborer, and even millionaire manager alike. From wargaming to Warhammer to Warcraft, the tension between ratio e. Despite the human experience of these freely chosen signals—the material, historical, and phenomenal instance of play—videogames like Dota and sports like baseball still cut. Like capital, digital games grammatize quality into digital quantities so particulate in terms of time, space, and scale that, on some level, the statistical relation between game and play escapes human experience entirely.

The metagame, while continuing to function as a human history, no longer seems to matter as human activity itself is flattened by an ever more granular statistical average operating beneath the surface of experience. In response, different aesthetic practices have been adopted to counteract the explosion of information and the precarity of human subjectivity within digital game spaces.

Despite these approaches to spectatorship, Valve generates value from every interaction within their flatworld. Like Dota, Steam is designed around a radical generality and homeostatic adaptability. In the same way that steam is invisible and cannot be seen, Valve functions as the valve that controls the flow of productivity and profit, of both currency and the much larger undercurrents that take the form of player labor time, server space, and bandwidth. Within this digital flatworld, play has been cut up and the immaterial labor of thousands of players has been quantified.

This computational vapor becomes the primary energy source powering a distributed global machine, a world system designed around a ludic mode of production.

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